Indo-Islamic architecture describing architectural and decorative elements
The fabulous wealth of
The conquest gave way to the Islamic thought and the culture that they brought along with. Muslims made an effective and distinct impact on the indigenous way of life and among other expressions of art also lent a distinct personality to the architecture in
The Indian architecture was based on trabeate system containing lintel, pillars and conical corbelled dome. Whereas, the Islamic architecture was on the arcrate system i.e an arched doorway holding the weight of drum and dome by creating squinches in the upper corners of the hall.
The Islamic buildings consists mainly of the masjid (mosque), maqbara(tomb), madrassa(college),minar(minaret) and qila(forts) etc. The factor common to both the temples and mosques was the use of decorative elements. In both the decorative elements were given a high priority, however the contrast was equally striking. The prayer chamber of the mosque was spacious, whereas the shrine of the temple was comparatively small. The mosque was light and open, whereas the temple was dark and closed. The difference between the lay-out of a temple and a mosque is explained by the essential difference between the Hindu and Muslim forms of worship and prayer. A cell to house the image of the deity, garbha-griha, and often small hall or the mandapa in front for the worshippers was regarded adequate for a simple Hindu temple. But the Islamic form of worship, with its emphasis on congregational prayer, requires a spacious courtyard with a large prayer hall, pointing towards
The practice of the burial of the dead, as distinct from the cremation practised by the Hindus, led to the building of tombs. The essential elements of the tomb are a domed chamber (hujra) with a cenotaph(zarih) in center, a
mihrab in the western wall and the real grave (qabr) in an underground
chamber(maqbara). In larger and more complex tombs, in the case of royal heads etc. there is also a mosque, and well planned garden. The entry to the tomb is from the south, as the dead are buried with their head pointing the northern direction.
The mode, theme or motifs or ornamentation employed in Islamic buildings also made a departure from the earlier vogues. The Hindu style or ornamentation is largely naturalistic showing human and animal forms and the luxuriant vegetation life. As among the Muslims the representation of living beings was taboo by way of decoration or ornamentation, they introduced geometrical and arabesque patterns, ornamental writing and formal representation of plant and floral life.
The Hindu art on one hand has been rhythmic and vibrant whereas the muslim art is characterised by the formal layouts and geometric designs. Calligraphy formed a major element in the decoration of the monument. The ornamental designs in Islamic building were carved in low relief, cut on plaster, painted or inlaid.
The creative monumental activity of the muslims is marked by two phases. In the first phase, the earlier hindu temples were purposefully demolished and the rubble used for construction as is the case of the Quwwat-ul-islam. The later phase was more formal and better planned and was made by the appropriate material, at times shipped from the foreign shores. The first phase of monuments were mainly erected during the Sultanate period and the second phase may be associated with the Mughal period.
Some unique and multifarious architectural elements of the Islamic monuments may be classified as: a) Main gateway(iwan), b) courtyard(sahn), c) water pond(vazu)in the center of the courtyard, d) cloisters or the pillared verandahs used as either madrassas or shelters by the worshippers, e) sanctuary hall (aiywan); a prayer hall having three or five
arched openings (trimukhi or panchmukhi), f) recessed nice or qibla wall (miharb) i.e a blind arch recessed in semi-octagonal wall decorated with Quranic verses, inlay work etc. g) pulpit (member) an elevated stand used by the Imam to announce the namaz h) squinches, architectural device created to convert the upper portion of a square room into an octagonal i) dome or
gumbad indicating the supremancy of the almighty. Mostly the mosques have a single and the tomb double domes. j) arch variously shaped like a horse shoe/ semi-circular, true arches were introduced by the muslims. k) spandrel is upper cornered triangular space on both sides of an arch of the iwan. l) minar or a tower in the mosque for the azan.
Certain decorative elements include a) stalactite or the muqrana style, a honey comb motif, adopted to also fill the space at squinches lending greater support. Created below Qutab minar’s balconies, it is the first evidence of the use of this design in
The Sultanate Period:
Post his victory, Muhammad Ghauri deputed Qutub-ud-din Aibak as his governor to look after the affairs of
The Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque
The iconoclastic zeal of Aibak led to the destruction and defacing of hindu temples. The site of the mosque is known as the first city of
Depiction of defaced hindu figures
The outer eastern wall of the mosque is 147 feet long, pierced with four windows and in the center there is a 11 feet wide main arched entrance
gateway covering seven steps made of heavy stone blocks leading to the eastern wall. The western side or the
Later, a lofty arched screen was erected and the mosque was enlarged by Shamsu'd-Din Iltutmish (AD 1210-35) and Alau'd-Din Khalji. The Iron Pillar, as was in the temple could not be taken out an thus remains there. It bears an inscription in Sanskrit in Brahmi script of fourth century AD, according to which the pillar was set up as a Vishnudhvaja (standard of god Vishnu) on the hill known as Vishnupada in memory of a mighty king named Chandra. A deep socket on the top of the ornate capital indicates that probably an image of Garuda was fixed into it.
Iron pillar and part of the mosque
As per the inscription on a pillar of one of the arches of the screen this mosque was constructed under the supervison of Fazl-bin-Abi’l Maali.
The Alai-Darwaza, the southern gateway of the mosque was built by Allaudin Khilji in 1311 by enlarging the Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque's enclosures of colonnades and providing them two gateways. Built of red sandstone it is 17.2 meters square in shape with arched openings on all sides. It is one of the earliest buildings in
horseshoes. The interior is profusely carved with geometrical symbols and inscriptions in the Naqsh script. The decorations interspersed with inscriptional band in white marble make for a very pleasing view. It is also perhaps the earliest building the subcontinent to feature the now typical knob on the dome.
Khilji also aspired to build a minar, the Alai Minar, double the length and circumference of the Qutab minar. The construction of the ambitious minar had started within the same complex but could not be completed due to his death.
Delicately carved Mihrab in Iltutmish’s tomb
Just outside the extension of the Quwwat-ul-islam mosque, done by Iltutmish, he built a tomb for himself in 1230 AD. It is a square room of 29 ½ feet, and is towards the north-west of the mosque. The tomb has a plain exterior, though its interior is very delicately and profusely decorated. Infact it almost seems like lace work in stone. The red sandstone of the interiors is decorated with quranic verses and scrolls in various designs in low relief. On the western side are the three beautifully decorated mihrabs. The tomb is carved with inscriptions in Kufi and Nashk characters and geometrical and arabesque pattern in the Saracenic tradition, though several motifs from the hindu culture have also been borrowed. Among these are the wheel, bell-and-chain, tassels, lotus and diamond. Fergusson has described it as “one of the richest examples of Hindu art applied to Muhammadan purposes.”
Squinches in Iltutmish tomb
The Mughal Period
The Mughal period in
Now a landmark monument, it stands a testimony to the splendour of the Mughal era, and Humanyun’s tomb is a World heritage Site.
The construction of the tomb commenced in the year 1565 AD by his first wife Bega Begum aka Haji Begum, nine years after his death. Mirak Mirza Ghiyath, a Persian architect was employed for the purpose. The tomb is a beautiful synthesis of Persian architecture combined with Indian traditions. The Persian features are reflected in arched alcoves, corridors, and the high double dome, and Indian traditions by octagonal kiosks, that gives it a pyramidal profile, and also by such features as the use of beam and lintel in dalans.
It was ironically a woman who set the tone for Mughal architecture. The building inaugurates a sequence of grand Mughal mausolea. This masculine synthesis of design sensibilities probably formed the basic model for the Taj Mahal. Although according to Islam the grave be covered only by earth and be open to sky, the Mughals turned mausoleum making into an art.
Raised on a vast platform, the tomb proper stands in the centre of a square garden, divided into 4 main parts by causeways in the centre of which ran shallow water-channels. The garden complex is divided mainly into four compartments further being sub-divided into many square parts (a typical example of Mughal char-bagh), with causeways and water channels, and water pavilions at regular intervals.
The tomb complex is enclosed by a high rubble wall; entered through two entrance gateways, one on the west and other on the south. The lofty tower-like gateways are a precursor to the magnificent tomb and adds to its grandeur. The south gate rises to a height of nearly 15.5 metres and consists of a central octagonal hall flanked rectangular rooms. The first floor of the gateway has square and oblong rooms. On the outside, the gate is flanked by screen-walls with arched recesses. Immediately to the west of the south gateway is an enclosure measuring 146 metres by 32 metres, built against the exterior face of the enclosure wall. The building is a low-roofed one with 25 arched entrances and was meant to house the attendants of the royal tomb. A baradari occupies the center of the eastern wall and a bath enclosure (hammam) on that of the northern wall. The hammam stands on a 7 feet high platform, and there is a pond in the middle of the hammam which used to be filled with water from a well which was constructed just out side the enclosure wall. The walls on the either side of the two gateways contained arched cells. The gateways are built of grey stone, ornamented with bands and bosses of red stone interspersed at some places with marble. The building medium in the Humayun’s Tomb is of three kinds of stones, viz., red sandstone, while marble and quartzite. The enclosure walls and the two gateways are constructed of local quartzite with red sandstone dressing and marble inlay. The stairs of platform of the main tomb is also dressed with quartzite.
In the center of the garden is a stone and masonary platform about 5 feet raised from the ground. A 20 feet terrace on this, has 72 alcove arched openings ornamented with white marble bands. In the center of each of the four sides of the terrace, arched doors with stairs lead one to the top of the terrace, at the center of which is located the main tomb. Both the terrace and the platform are paved with sandstone. The main tomb is located below the monument and is approached through a horizontal passage to the east of southern stair. The arched openings of the platform contain many miscellaneous tombs.
The main tomb houses the grave of Humayun and is made of white marble without any inscription and is encompassed by four octagonal chambers at diagonals and arched lobbies on the sides and their openings are closed with perforated screens or jaalis. The chambers houses many tombs of the emperor’s family. The south-eastern room contains three graves of Humayun’s daughters; the south-western room has graves of Bahadur Shah Alam and his wife, whereas the north-eastern room contains the graves of Humayun’s two wives.
The octagonal tomb is surmounted by a double dome supported by squinches. The employment of double dome in a mausoleum is first seen here and this gives the builder the advantage of building an imposing structure of enormous height, tactfully concealing the presence of double domes on the outside. While the exterior height gives an imposing look, the low ceiling of the lower dome gives a proportionate height of the interior features. The pattern of constructing double domes was already prevalent in
The double dome roofs the central mortuary chamber and this 74 feet high white marbled dome stands on a 25 feet high cylindrical drum sporting black stone medallions. Around the drum at each corner there is a pillared octagonal kiosk (chattri) standing on stepped platform roofing the cornered compartments. A brass finial tops off the dome.
There is a certain rhythmic quality in the whole structure in its symmetrical design and the repetition of the large dome in the similar pavillions with small but similar domes.
The Humayun’s Tomb is also famously associated with the tragic capture of the last of the Mughal Emperors, Bahadur Shah Zafar, along with the three princes Mirza Mughal, Mirza Khizar Sultan and Mirza Abu Bakr by Lieutenant Hodson in 1857. The Mughal Emperor along with the princes was captured by Hodson on 22 September, 1857.
The Humayun’s Tomb complex also houses many other prominent buildings which are examples of architecture of the period preceding and succeeding Humayun. The prominent among them are:
Nai ka Gumbad or Barber’s Tomb
This double-domed square tomb is located at the south-east corner in the garden complex. The tomb is datable to 1590-91, through an inscription found inside. The persons interned in the two graves of this tomb are unknown, however it is said to have been built for the Emperor’s favorite barber.
The monument is located outside the eastern enclosure wall. An impressive tomb of plastered stone covered with a dome of blue tiles led to it being called as Nila Gumbad. Externally octagonal in appearance it is square within and the ceiling is profusely decorated with painted and incised plaster. It is believed to contain the remains of one Fahim Khan, the attendant of Abdur Rahim Khan, who lived during the reign of Jahangir. The attendant died in 1626 A.D.
Consists of a large enclosure adjoining the south-western corner of Humayun’s tomb. It is divided into two quadrangles by a series of cells provided with a gateway in its center.
The sarai or the shelter was built by Haji Begum, the widow of Humayun in 1560-61 to house the three hundred Arab priests, who were said to have been brought with her from her pilgrimage to
Within the eastern enclosure of the Arab Sarai lies a mosque on a raised platform. Its prayer-chamber is faced by three arched openings, the central bay being roofed by a dome.
The tomb is located adjacent to the Afsarwala Mosque, on the same raised platform. It is an octagonal tomb with double dome. The identity of the afsar or the officer who raised these buildings is not known. However one of the marble graves inside the tomb bears an inscription has a date of 1566-67 A.D.
Bu Halima’s Garden
The visitor entering the Humayun Tomb complex first enters into a garden complex, known as the Bu Halima’s garden. Nothing much is known of the lady; the gateway and two very ornamental chattris are all that remains of the garden.
Tomb of Isa Khan
The octagonal tomb of Isa Khan is located to the south-west of the Bu Halima garden. It is an octagonal garden enclosure, with entrance on the north, in the center of which lies the tomb. The central chamber is surrounded by verandahs and each side is pierced by three arches. The sides of the chamber are closed by stone jaalis except for on the western side that contains a mihrab. A three-domed mosque projects outward from the western side of the octagonal enclosure.
An inscription on a red sandstone slab indicated that the tomb is of Masnad Ali Isa Khan, the Chief chamberlain, during the rein of Sher Shah Sur and his son Islam Shah. An inscription over the mihrab mentions the date 1547-48.
Buddhist paintings of
Budha, Maitreya, and Yaksha couple Mahayana phase
Situated in the north-western region of
The caves may be roughly divided into two phases, the first phase dating from 2nd century BC to 2nd Century AD representing the austere phase of the Hinayana Buddhism and the second phase, following a hiatus for a few centuries, between 4th/5th century AD to 8th Century AD. The second phase was dominated by the Mahayana period, during the Vakataka dynasty.
The Satavahanas rulers (3rd century BC to 3rd century AD) carried out the excavations of the first phase of caves, and cave numbers 8,9,10,12,13 and 15A may be attributed to them. The Hinayana philosophy does not allow for the pictorial representation of Lord Budhha himself but the presence may be depicted symbolically, for example the wheel of Law or a Bodhi tree.
During the Vakatakas dynasty around 23 new caves were excavated, and the earlier ones modified and extended. The founder of the dynasty was Vindhyshakti, and the dynasty was also related to the Guptas through matrimonial alliances. Majority of the paintings which were done during the 5th-6th century AD belong to this phase.
The investigators of the site assigned the numbers to the caves according to their sequence along the wall of the ravine, and does not have anything to do with the dating/ order of creation of the caves.
Stylistically the caves are of two types – caityas and viharas. The caityas or the chapels are long rectangular prayer halls with an apsidal end. They have vaulted ceilings and two rows of octagonal pillars divide the interior into a central hall with the votive stupa; the object of veneration, and the side aisles that provide the passage for circumambulation (pradakshina path). The Mahayana caityas houses images of Buddha also. The caitya caves at
On the other hand, viharas are the living quarters or the monasteries of the monks. Typically the viharas have a verandah, a square or rectangular hall without columns with small cells around and an inner shrine with the Buddha image or a votive stupa. The vihara caves include the early cave numbers 8,12,13, and 15A and the later cave numbers 1,2,6,16,17.
Most of the paintings are found in viharas though caitya caves 9 and 10 also have some paintings. The paintings were found in various states of preservation.
Technique and Colours:
The paintings of
plaster is completely dry, while in the fresco style colours are applied on the wet surface. The surface of the paintings was prepared by the application of two coats of plaster. The first layer was usually the coarser layer and made of fibrous material including paddy husk, sand, gravel, lime, and even jute. The first layer was an inch or an inch and a half in thickness. The second layer that was applied was smoother in nature and prepared the ground for painting. Thin layer of limewash was applied as the last layer. Over this layer the artists applied colours to make the painting. These paintings were
done in extremely poor light conditions as the interiors of the caves were
dark and rarely any light reached in. Various theories have been impounded about how the artists managed to paint some of the finest paintings in such poor light conditions, ranging from the use of oil lamps, to the mirrors to magnify the little light that was received.
The vibrant colours that were used were all of either mineral or plant origin. For example red was prepared from hematite; yellow from yellow ochre; and green from terra verte (a kind of earth); blue was imported from
The subject matter of the paintings and sculptures found in
The Jataka tales are the allegorical tales based on previous life of Buddha in both human and non-human forms. The canonical book comprises 547 poems, and though used as vehicles of Buddhist ethical teaching, these stories are mostly of secular origin. The main protagonist of the Jataka tales however remains Buddha.
Whereas in the Avadana tales, the story revolves around noteworthy deeds and the protagonist could be anyone. They correlate the virtuous deeds of past lives with that of subsequent births. Two important avadanas; Purna Avadana and Simhala are painted in Cave numbers 2 and 17 respectively.
Apart from this the walls are also adorned with illuminated history of the time including court scenes, street scenes, and domestic life and even animal and bird studies. The whole mood is that of activity and narrative. The narratives were painted on the walls and not on the ceilings, as it would have been difficult for the devotees to follow the narrative while constantly looking upwards.
However the ceilings are also adorned albeit with decorative motifs, animals, and even figures. The ceilings depict the mithuna couples, kinaras (half-human, half-horse), many composite animals where the physical features are not just of any one animal for example makara (elephant plus crocodiles) etc. Flowers and other fauna details also are depicted on the ceilings, at time they adopt a realist form and at others are stylised
representations. The idea was to adorn and beautify the ceilings and not leave them bare. Vibrant colours and motifs are used for the purpose, and at
time roundish pot-bellied dwarfs painted at intervals provide the comic relief, and adds to the humor. Certain motifs that were liberally used were lotuses, swans, vidyadharas etc. were not only decorative in character but also considered auspicious. In fact these are taken from the Brahmanical culture thus blurring the boundaries between the two religions.
The mention of
The vihara comprises a verandah and a hall bordered with cells. Above the left porch are friezes depicting the three ominous signs in Buddha’s life; a sick man, an old man, and a corpse.
The twenty pillars with heavily decorated bracket-capitals support the hall ceiling. The best known paintings of the two Bodhisattvas flank the entrance
to the shrine chamber. On the left is Padmapani and on the right is Avalokiteswara.
Padmapani: The painting of Padmapani, the compassionate Bodhisattva is one of the finest examples of the Indian sacred art. Padmapani languidly standing with the blue lotus in the tribhanga pose is an exquisite amalgamation of both the sensuous and the spiritual. The painting not only depicts the complete harmony and peace reflected in the bodily posture but also the completely at peace and full of passion spiritual state of mind of the Boddisattva. The face of the Buddha-to-be is a perfect oval with sharp aquiline nose, full lower lip, bow-like brows, slim waist, and very long arms; the lakshans of Mahapurush as documented in the canons like Shilpshashtra. He wears a few rich pieces of jewellery, such as an ekawali (single strand of pearls), an elaborate pointed crown studded with gems and jewels and a sacred cord. His expression of “calm is enhanced by the figures which crowd him from all directions and establish him as an island of spiritual disengagement, unmoved and unattentive to the forces and sounds of maya which engulf him.” (Roy C Craven). The half-closed eyes render a spiritual expression in the eyes and at the same time a mood of dispassion from the world. A beautiful amalgamation of the spiritual with the sensuous. The use of shading or vartana; lighter tone accents on the forehead and nose ridge further imparts more plasticity and a three-dimensional effect to the painting.
Another noteworthy and very popular
Mahajanaka Jataka, Cave 1
A popular jataka tale narrating the story of a king named mahajanka and how he shuns all his desires and kingdom and becomes an ascetic. Shivali, his wife, tries to dissuade him, but on failing follows him on the path of renunciation. The painting begins with the ritual bath-rajyaabhishek-and the prince is painted as being seated on a stool with two attendants poring water on him, the face here is not idealised as accounted in the canons, and is
shown in a realistic manner, however the figure is much larger than those in
Scene from Mahajanka Jataka
the background to depict his higher status. The throne is worked upon in gold and surrounding the king are the minion lady attendants, dwarfs also appear in many paintings as the attendants. The stippling effect is liberally used in the paintings to impart the effect of shading. Next scene is that of the Mahajanaka going out with his entourage to hear the sermons, here as a prince he is painted in an idealised manner with the face having elongated eyes as described in the canons. Men and women are shown sporting various kinds of hairstyles. The chattra covering the king is a pointer to his royal status. The painting is a good mix of realism and perfection. The ascetic is shown sitting higher than the prince thus exalting his spiritual status. In
many concubines has been beautifully depicted in the now famous Dance Scene. The scene is very carnival-like and celebrates life. The scene also depicts that performing arts were also practiced and were famous at that time, the rhythmic movements of the dancer sporting a tie-dye blouse and a skirt in patola pattern, is very graceful. The ladies are playing cymbals and
drums; popular from performing arts point-of-view. When the King is leaving the palace there is a painting of geese that were considered as auspicious symbols, the procession is playing musical instruments and the painting depicts the poignancy of the theme; men leaving to achieve something higher than a life lived in luxury. The last scene show Mahajanaka holding an alms bowl and his eyes are full of compassion.
Is remarkable for its exquisite paintings of the ceiling that gives it the effect of a cloth canopy. The mandala or the circular diagram of the cosmos used in Buddhism is supported by demons.
Cave 2 also has the painted narrative of the jataka tale of Vidhurpandita, the Boddhisattva. The painting is aesthetically done and narrates the tale very effectively. However, unlike Mahajanak jataka, here the figures are slightly squat and short. Technique of shading is used to impart plasticity but the ornamentation is not as elaborate. The reason could be since this story features the tribal kings, so shown wearing less jewellery than what Shivali had worn.
Cave 2 also has the painting Miracle of Sravasti where Buddha take on 1000 forms to dispel disbelief, however this is a particularly badly done painting
with the eyes of the figures wide open, expressionless face and flat texture with no shading. Even the mudras are also wrongly made, there seems to be no finesse in this painting.
Miracle of srasvati
One of the earliest caves, dating around first century BC, the caitya has a vaulted ceiling. Some of the paintings recall the style of Sanchi but there are also later murals depicting Buddha in person.
One of the most beautiful viharas, it has a detailed inscription on the left outer wall, recording its antecedents. However most of the paintings in this cave are now faded.
Yet another very popular cave it is especially remarkable for the number of murals that have survived. The masterpieces include the panel above the doorway depicting the seven Manushi Buddhas together with Maitreya or the future Buddha, seated under their respective Bodhi trees.
Directly below is a line of eight loving or mithuna couples in varied styles of dresses and coiffures. The painted panels on the rear wall of the verandah are well preserved. The figures of the apsaras are well drawn and points to the consummate skills of the painters even in their damaged state. Particularly beautiful and alluring is the figure of a dark-skinned apsara with her turban-like headgear.
The walls of the halls are embellished with various jatakas of which the most noteworthy is the one covering the entire left wall between the two pilasters. This is the Visvantara Jataka that epitomises the Bodhisattva’s virtue of generosity. The crooked Brahmin in the story has been painted with a parrot-like nose and depicted with ugly features and broken teeth thus evoking a sense of repulsion.
This cave has the largest number of paintings. Among the finest are a vast panel depicting Simhala’s shipwreck and the man-eating ogresses that he is surrounded by in the island. This tale is a pictorial narration of the Simhala Avadana and covers a complete wall.
The general format of the early paintings appear to indicate that they formed a continuous narration within a narrow band. However, the later paintings of
The Buddhist caves of Bagh are located on the banks of Baghini river, tributary of
Main caves have a quadrangular plan and consist of a vihara with stupa filled sanctum in the rear forming a small caitya griha. The sides have small cells for the monks while the facade is a colonnaded portico.
The Bagh paintings are done in the same tempera technique that was also employed at the
The main theme of the paintings are derived from the life of Buddha and stories related to him, however the Bagh paintings also depict the life of inmates of monasteries and of the Generals and Kings that patronized them. These paintings are not reproductions of natural or historical scenes. They are illustrations of religio-philosophical ideas and sentiments. Artists of the
age did not express their individual styles or perception or even realism but an ideal world through traditional conventions and symbols.
Sundari with face covered
The painting of the newly wed Sundari, wife of Saundarya Nand the half brother of Buddha, who leaves her in pursuit of spiritual enlightenment to follow Lord Buddha, is especially poignant and full of repose. The face of the lady is covered with her hands evoking the karuna rasa, and she is depicted draping a white saree and is sobbing and despairing her husband’s departure. Intense emotion is conveyed by the bent of her pliant body, tense fingers that are spread out in an attitude of utter despair and loss. Hands are exceptionally well drawn and naturalistically styled as they convey more emotion. The hidden face conveys rather than conceals emotions of sorrow. A pair of loving pigeons on the roof of pavilion further heightens Sundari’s loneliness and not only makes for naturalistic surroundings but also adds poignancy to the scene. Face and contours of companions consoling Sundari
are reminiscent of classical Ajanta type; pointed oval face, pensive eyes, drooping mouth, globular breasts and wearing a trivali. The colour white has been used very effectively.